Monday, August 29, 2011

नायक राजेश हमाल र सुक्ष्मजीवहरु

कलाकार / नायक राजेश हमाललाई महानायक बनाएर लेखेका टिपोट को थुप्रो लागिसकेछ । निसन्देह, यो हाँस्य प्रायोजनको लागि मात्र लेखिएको हो । तर, भर्खर-भर्खर Microbiology पढ्न सुरु गर्नेहरुको लागि Bacteria/Virus को characterहरु सम्झिन सजिलो हुन सक्छ ।

  1. राजेश दाइलाई त माईक्रोस्कोप नै नचाहिने रहेछ ब्याक्टेरिया हेर्न को लागि ....
  2. राजेश दाइ सानो हुँदां Staphylococcus र Streptococcus को गुच्चा खेल्नुहुन्थ्यो रे ।
  3. राजेश दाइ सानो हुँदां Escherichia coli र  Vibrio cholera को डण्डीबियो  खेल्नुहुन्थ्यो रे ।  एकदिन, E. coli डण्डीले V. cholera गुलीलाई अलि जोडले हिर्काउनुभएछ, त्यसैले आजसम्म पनि V. cholera बाङ्गोको बाङ्गै छ । 
  4. HIV त राजेश दाइसँग डराएर पो रहेछ, CD4 T-cell भित्र लुकि-लुकी बस्ने । 
  5. राजेश दाइको लामो कपाल देखेर पो Salmonella typhi पनि peritrichous (झुसे) भएको रहेछ ।
  6. २०५१ सालमा नेपालमा ठुलो खडेरी परेको थियो, किन भनेर बुझ्दै जांदा त राजेश दाइले Agaricus biospora (mushroom) को छाता बनाएर ओढ्नु भएको रहेछ ।
  7. राजेश दाइले एउटा भुस्याहा कुकुरलाई गोली हान्नु भएछ, गोली लाग्यो, घाऊ-रगत देखिएन, तर पानी देखी डराउने मात्र भएछ, १४ दिनपछी बल्ल कुकुर मरेछ । यसपल्ट त राजेश दाइपनि अचम्म पर्नुभएछ । (Bullet shaped Rhabdovirus).
  8. राजेश दाइको 'देउता' चलचित्र हेरेपछि Proteus त एकै ठाउँमा बस्न नसक्ने चकचके भएछ । (Swarming motility of Proteus spp.)
बांकी यता
बिष्णु प्र. मरासिनी

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

Lumbini, Nepal, The Birth Place of Buddha (Siddhartha Gautam)

2,500 ago, the powerful and influencing Nepal had given birth to Lord Buddha (623 BC) who lead the pathway of peace and civilization for humankind. Currently, this place is located in the Rupandehi district. But in modern days, Nepal ???........  Again, Nepal should be a leading country to the destination for peace and tranquillity.

Use light to show pathway for peace

Origin of peace

Art and peaceful life

Elysium in the mortal world

After following Budhha, Asoka became more happier and greater than as a Emperor

Please, stop violence, share love and knowledge, save the Earth
 Reference: World Heritage List

Tuesday, August 09, 2011

Pathogenesis of Arthritis

Arthritis is the painful disorder of joints, a leading cause for the disability in geriatrics. Osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gout, lupus etc. are the common types of arthritis. OA is a disease aquired by 'wear and tear', and injury leading to cartilage degradation. RA is chronic inflammatory disorder attacking mainly the joints. Gout develops due to monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in synovial fluid.

Pathogenesis of arthritis is mainly due to the following reasons. The activation of immune cells because of cross reactivity with bacteria, virus, pollen grains etc., which share common epitope with synovium or defects in genes like HLA-DRB1*0401, single nucleotide polymorphism (PTPN22, STAT4, CDK6, etc.). Complement complex, C5b678(9)n are deposited on synovial lining and opsonize it. These immune cells release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which intitaites  proliferation of fibroblast and osteoclast, and ultimately demineralize and destroy the bone matrix. Agonist of RANK, TLR2, etc. trigger the activation of NF-kB, which ultimately produces matrix metalloproteinase, nitric oxide and other bone degenarating enzymes. Due to obesity, axial  force as well as varus malalignment increases, hence cartilage begin to erode. Uric acid (purine) is overproduced due to some hyperactive enzymes or overturn of nucleic acid rich dietary source, and renal failure (not removing of urate).

Joint damage and pain due to arthritis can be reduced using ice, joint replacement, physiotherapy, hyaluronic acid administration, avoiding purine rich diet, administration of drugs such as methotrexate, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab, Ibuprofen, corticosteroids, colchicine, diclofenac,  allopurinol, etc.
(To be Continue.....) (Update: View part II)
  1. Porth, C.M, and Matfin, G. Pathophysiology, concept of altered health states, 8th edition, Lippincott Willian and Wilkins Publisher (2009)
  2. Firestein, G.S. Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 423, 356-361(2003)
  3. El-Gabalawy H. S. et al.,  Non-HLA genes modulate the risk of rheumatoid arthritis associated with HLA-DRB1 in a susceptible North American Native population, Genes and Immunity, Doi :10.1038/gene.2011.30(2011)
  4. Loughlin, J. Osteoarthritis: All types of trouble-defining OA in the genomic era. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 7, 200-201(2011)