Sunday, September 20, 2020

Proteins encoded by corona virus (SARS-CoV2)

by Swikriti Adhikari, Pratika Regmi, and Sangharshika Chaudhary

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is an enveloped and bear a non-segmented, positive sense, single-stranded RNA. This 30 kb genome (RNA)  encodes 14 open reading frames, Orfs (Orf is the part of the genetic material that has the ability to be translated). In particular, the 5’ Orf1a / Orf1ab of SARS-CoV-2 encodes for a single polyproteins, which is cleaved by proteolysis of virus’s own protease enzyme and fragmented into 16 non-structural proteins (Nsp1–16) creating the replicase / transcriptase complex (RTC). The proteins encodes by SARS-CoV-2 that are structural proteins, non-structural proteins and accessory proteins.

1. Structural Proteins
Structural viral proteins usually make up the outer coat of the virus and help in packaging of genome. SARS-Cov-2 encodes for four structural proteins and are encoded by the 3’-terminus of the viral genome. These are: 

Spike (S) glycoproteins: It is glycoprotein that gives crown like appearance thus named corona. It represent the largest structures of the virus and are essential for the entry into host cells. S protein attaches to the receptor protein ACE 2 (Angiotensin converting enzyme 2) of host alveoli and facilitate entry. Spike protein together with Hemaglutin esterase (HE) protein assist in entry to the human cell.

Envelope (E) proteins: E protein interacts with membrane protein to form the viral envelope. There is 2 types of  Envelope protein E1 & E2.  E1 is matrix glycoprotein transmembrane protein where as E2 is peplogenic glycoprotein. They are only present in small quantities and most likely function as ion channels, not necessarily needed for viral replication but essential for pathogenesis. 

Membrane/Matrix (M) proteins: They are the most abundant proteins in the virus structure and are responsible for viral membrane curvature and binding to the nucleocapsid.

Nucleocapsid (N) proteins: They bind to the viral RNA genome and ensure the maintenance of the RNA in a ‘beads-on-a-string’ conformation.

   Figure 1: Structural Proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (Picture source:

2. Non-structural Proteins
The non-structural proteins are produced by the 5’-terminal end of the genome. Majority (~66%) segment of viral RNA located in the first ORF translates two polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab, and encodes 16 non-structural proteins (NSP1-16), while the remaining ORFs encode accessory and structural proteins. The 16 non-structural protein includes;

  1. NSP3: Papain-like protease-Plpro, supplement polyproteins
  2. NSP5: Main protease-Mpro, also called Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro): cuts the polyproteins translated from viral RNA to yield functional viral proteins.
  3. NSP7-8: Primase complex,
  4. NSP12: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-RdRp
  5. NSP13: Helicase-Hel
  6. NSP14: 3′–5′ Exoribonuclease-ExoN, initiates cap formation
  7. NSP15: Endoribonuclease-NendoU
  8. NSP16: N7- and 2’O-methyltransferases: modify the cap of viral RNAs
  9. other NSPs (1,2,4,6,9,10,11)

Figure 2: Non-structural proteins (upper) and spike protein (lower) encoded by SARS-CoV-2
Picture Source: Viruses 2019, 11(1), 59;

Nonstructural proteins of corona-viruses and their function

Nonstructural protein (nsp)


nsp1 & 3

Inhibit interferon signaling and block host innate immune response by promotion of cellular degradation and also blocks translation of host’s RNA


Binding to proinhibition protein

nsp3 & 5

Promoting cytokine expression and cleavage of viral polyprotein

nsp4 & 6

Contribute to structure of DMVs as transmembrane scaffold protein (DMVs formation)

nsp7/8 complex

Processivity clamp for RNA polymerase by orms hexadecameric complex


RNA binding protein phosphatase

nsp10, 16 & 14

Stimulation of ExoN and 2-O-MT activity


Replication enzyme (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase)


RNA helicase, 5′ triphosphatase


Proofreading of viral genome


Viral endoribonuclease and chymotrypsin‐like protease


Avoiding MDA5 recognition and inhibit innate immunity regulation

3. Accessory Proteins

Apart from structural and non-structural proteins, SARS-CoV-2 encodes a group of unique proteins called accessory proteins. They help to change the environment inside the infected cell to make it easier for the virus to replicate. Many of these accessory proteins have no known homologues. The SARS-CoV-2 genome has an unusually high number of accessory genes in the 3′-end of the genome. The accessory proteins present in SARS-CoV-2 are named under the specific position of the ORFs and they are:

3a protein
3b protein
6 protein
7a protein
7b protein
8a protein
8b protein
9b protein

Monday, February 25, 2019

Applied Biotechnology

Modern Technique in Biochemistry

  1. Describe how affinity chromatography is useful for protein purification. 7
  2. Describe the size exclusion gel chromatography in detail.  7
  3. Describe the principle, procedure and uses of  paper chromatography.  8
  4. What is immunodetection? Describe the fluorescence immunoassay.  2+6
  5. Tabulate the difference between RIA and ELISA.    7
  6. Describe the principle and instrumentation of PCR.    3+5
  7. Explain about the vectors in gene cloning.   7
  8. Describe the principle and uses of western blotting.  7
  9. Write the Nernst equation.  Write the application of biosensor.  2+5
  10. Describe the mechanism of pH electrode.    8
  11. What is electrophoretic mobility (μ)? Describe the agarose gel electrophoresis.    2+7
  12. How PAGE is prepared, explain.        6
  13. What is redox reaction? Write the application of redox couple.    2+5
  14. Describe the principle of Clark’s oxygen electrode.    8
  15. What is bioinformatics? Mention the scope of bioinformatics in clinical diagnosis.   2+5
  16. Enlist the scope of biotechnology.     8

Write a short note    5
  • Ion selective electrode
  • Hybridization
  • DNA sequencing  
  • Column chromatography
  • Capacity factor in chromatography
  • Fluorescence polarization immunoassay
  • Electrochemiluminescence

Wednesday, July 18, 2018

BCM BT513-II Biochemistry Model Question.

Model Questions for Biochemistry (M.Sc. Biotechnology, I-Semester, set II)

Long Answer Question: (7.5 × 1 = 7.5) (any one)

  1. Write the structure and function of polysaccharides in the living organisms.
  2. Classify the lipids and describe the structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
  3. Explain the major enzyme-catalyzed reactions with examples.
  4. What is PUFA? Describe the structure and functions of steroids.
  5. Write the structure and function of mono-saccharides.
  6. Define Michaelis-Menten expression for single substrate single enzyme catalyzed reaction. What is the significance of Michaelis constant?

Short Answer Question: (2.5 × 3 = 7.5) (any three)
  1. Write a short note on competitive inhibitor.
  2. What are the biological roles of nucleic acids?
  3. Describe the structure and biological role of glycoprotein.
  4. Explain the two major hypotheses for mode of enzyme action.
  5. Define enzyme. Describe Six-major types of enzyme-catalysed reaction.
  6. Suppose we have a mixture of an enzyme that contains total number of enzyme 0.1M. At this concentration (when all active site are filled), the maximal rate of reaction is 60,000M/S. Calculate the turnover number of that enzyme and time it takes to convert one substrate into a product molecule.
  7. Draw the structure of lactose.
  8. Draw the structure of sucrose.
  9. Write a short note on starch.

Very Short Answer Question:
(1 × 5 = 5) (any five)
  1. Write the Michaelis-Menten equation.
  2. Write the Henderson and Hasselbach equation.
  3. What do you mean by Turnover Number of an enzyme?
  4. Define cofactor and coenzyme.
  5. What is an isoenzyme?
  6. What do you mean by steady state assumption?
  7. Draw the structure of alpha-D-glucose.
  8. Draw the structure of alpha-D-fructose.
  9. Draw the structure of dGTP.
  10. What is glycogenin?
  11. Write a short note on sphingolipid.


Molecular and Cell Biology; and Genetics

Long Answer Question: (8)

  1. Describe the initiation of the replication process.
  2. Describe the structure and type of gene.
  3. What is a nucleosome? Describe the formation of a solenoid (condensed fiber) of DNA.
  4. What are the functions of RNA? Describe mRNA.
  5. Describe transcription briefly (in Prokaryotes).
  6. What are the Post-transcriptional Modifications? Describe in brief.
  7. Describe the initiation of the translation process in Prokaryotes.
  8. What are the Post-translational Modifications? Describe in brief.
  9. Describe the type of mutation and results due to base substitution. 
  10. Describe in  brief about the chemical mutagens.
  11. Describe the lac operon system.
  12. How is gene regulation promotor work in prokaryotes? illustrate with diagram.
  13. What is DNA cloning? Describe restriction enzymes (type II endonuclease).
  14. Illustrate with diagram of pUC19 and pBR322 as cloning vector.
  15. What are the applications of genetic engineering in biomedical sciences?
  16. Describe phenol-chloroform extraction method of DNA isolation.
  17. Describe the southern blot hybridization.
  18. Describe the steps in PCR.
  19. Highlight some gene editing techniques.

Short Answer Question: (5)

  1. Enlist the enzymes involved in the replication of DNA.
  2. Describe the proof-reading process of DNA polymerase.
  3. Describe tRNA.
  4. Draw the structure of adenine and cytosine. 
  5. Write a very short note on the human genome. 
  6. List the RNA polymerases and their product in Eukaryotes.
  7. Differentiate between RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase.
  8. Describe briefly inhibitors of transcription and their mode of action in Prokaryotes.
  9. What are the genetic codes and their characters?
  10. Describe translocation process during protein synthesis.
  11. Shine-Dalgarno sequence. 
  12. What is base excision repair.
  13. TATA binding protein.
  14. Inhibitors of DNases.

Friday, May 19, 2017

BCM 513-I List of Practicals

List of Practicals (M.Sc. Biotechnology, I-Semester)

  1. Preparation of normal, molar, Parts per million (PPM), and percent solutions.
  2. Preparation of different buffer solutions and measure their pH.
  3. Estimation of given protein concentration by Bradford, Lowry (Folin) protein assay and by Biuret test.
  4. Determination of the isoelectric point of casein (of milk).
  5. Titration of amino acids and find the physical constants.
  6. Qualitative detection of glucose in urine (the Trommer reaction).
  7. Quantitative determination of glucose in blood by a glucose-oxidase method.
  8. Determination of total cholesterol concentration in serum.
  9. Determination of urea concentration in serum and urine.
  10. Determination of saponification value of the fat.
  11. Qualitative tests for carbohydrates(Iodine test, Benedict’s test, Barfoed’s  test, Seliwanoff’s test, Bial’s test)
  12. Separation of amino acids by chromatographic techniques and detection by nin-hydrin test.
  13. Separation of lipids by TLC, and detection.

BCM 513-I Biochemistry Model Question

Model Questions for Biochemistry (M.Sc. Biotechnology, I-Semester)

Long Answer Question: (7.5 × 1 = 7.5) (any one)
1) Explain the biological functions of proteins with examples.
2) Explain the essential amino acids.
3) Explain the Ramachadran plot.

Short Answer Question: (2.5 × 3 = 7.5) (any three)
1) Describe how peptide bond is formed.
2) Draw the structures of non-polar and non-charged aliphatic amino acids.
3) Mention the the enzymes and co-factors involved in hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis.
4) Differentiate between fibrous and globular proteins.
4) Describe the structure of collagen.

Very Short Answer Question: (1 × 5 = 5) (any five)
1) Define denaturation of proteins.
2) Which bonds are flexible for rotation in a dipeptide?
3) Mention the replaced amino acids that leads to sickle cell anaemia.
4) Define the quaternary structure of proteins.
5) What are the major amino acids in collagen?
6) Describe the supersecondary structure of protein.
7) Describe in brief about the structure of haemoglobin.
8) What are chaperones.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Model Questions for Biochemistry-IV

for M.Sc. Biotechnology
Long Answer Questions        (@7)

  1. Describe the regulation of cholesterol synthesis.
  2. Describe the terpenoids biosynthesis.
  3. Describe the reaction that involves pyridoxal-5-phosphate and explain the mechanism of any one of them.
  4. Describe the beta-oxidation of odd-chain fatty acids.
  5. Describe the gluconeogenesis pathway and its regulation.
  6. Describe the degradation of purine.
  7. Describe the biosynthesis of flavonoids.
  8. Describe the urea cycle.

Short Answer Questions      (@2)
  1. Write a brief note on fate of shikimate in metabolism.
  2. Why alkaloids are imporatant?
  3. Describe the metabolic role of niacin.
  4. Describe the link between TCA and urea cycle.
  5. Explain the mechanism of digestion of carbohydrate in brief.
  6. What are steroid? Mention their role in metabolism.
  7. What are the pharmacological role of coumarin?
  8. Write a short note on monoterpenes.
  9. Describe allelopathy.
  10. Biosynthesis of ribose sugar.

Very Short Answer Questions                             (@1)
  1. Write a short note on carbamoyl phosphate synthetase?
  2. Enlist some organic reaction mechanisms.
  3. Function of biotin.
  4. What are saponin?
  5. Write a short note on flavanone.
  6. Glucocorticosteroid
  7. Role of carnitine.
  8. PUFA
  9. Ascorbic acid
  10. Cholecalciferol

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Model Questions for Pharmacology

Model Questions for Pharmaceutical Microbiology (Food Microbiology)

  1. What are the sources of impurities in pharmaceutical products? 
  2. Explain the “bio-assay” linking with it to the drug discovery process. 
  3. Highlight about the spoilage of pharmaceutical raw materials. 
  4. What is pharmacopoeia and monograph development? Highlight about it in the context of Nepal.
  5. Mention some quality assurance and management practices for pharmaceutical products. 
  6. Describe preservation methods of pharmaceutical products. 
  7. What are the factors affecting microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products? How the humidity is crucial for it? 
  8. What are the biological indicators of sterilization? Explain any two of them. 
  9. Explain some methods of testing for the presence of antibiotics in meat. 
  10. Explain some in vitro assays that are useful in drug discovery. 

  11. What are the routes of drug administration?
  12. What is pharmacodynamics? Explain with paracetamol (acetaminophen).
  13. What are the "potency and efficacy" of drug? Explain with examples.
  14. What is therapeutic index? Explain and draw a graph for warfarin.
  15. How can we select a molecule to be taken as a medicine? Explain some theoretical aspects.

  16. What are the components of augmentin? Explain the mode of action of augmentin. 
  17. What are the criteria to select the antibiotics as the drug of choice? 
  18. Enlist some biological sources and the antibiotics extracted/isolated from them. 
  19. What are super-bugs? “Overuse of antibiotics may create super-bugs.” Explain the statement.
  20. Describe the MIC and MBC. Explain some methods of searching new antibacterials.

Saturday, November 07, 2015

Active Nepalese Blogger and Future of Blogging

There were hundreds of Nepalese blogger writing in Nepali and English from Nepal and abroad. Despite many hurdles, political imbalances, difficulty in internet and electricity access; many of them were frequently feeding us. However, the majority of them disappear from blogverse (Universe of blog), nowadays. Mainly due to Facebook and Twitter, which are proving platforms for mini and micro-blogging, several online newspapers, and may be due to chaos in the country.

Country is suffering from unannounced blockade making distasteful festivals and life. We are struggling to get minimum living things such as gas for cooking, vehicles, even medicines, just a few to mention here. We have to spend majority of time to get such minimum living standard impeding for other creativity. However, still some blogger are paying more attention to the aesthetic value of blog for Nepalese and promulgating voluntarily. According to contribution since past month, the following are active blogs for the Nepalese by Nepalese.  News blog, copy-paste blog, the blog which are filled only with personal bio-data, and malfunctioned or virus infected blogs are removed from the list. Please, suggest me if remains to be included.

1. साहित्य संग्रहालय
2. मेरो संसार
3. केही आफ्नै कथा, ब्यथा अनि भावनाहरु
4. समय र परिवेश
5. नेपालप्लस
6. सापेक्ष बुझाई
7. रामकुमार परियार
8. Sarad Kumar Gauchan's DIARY
9. Nepalvidhya
10. Tales of Sun and Rain (घामपानीका कहानी)
11. hataru/हटारु
12. Apawad
13. अनलाइन कम्प्युटर इनिस्टीच्युट
14. अभिनव.कम 
15. गाउँले मन
16. मेरो चौतारी डट कम
17. DAUTARI :: दौंतरी
18. शब्द (Shabda) ...
20. Aakar Post
21. Bikash Koirala | What I Feel
22. मेरो खेस्रा whatever i feel 
23. Palpali Milan
24. मेरो आफ्नै सेरोफेरो
25. शब्द चित्र डट कम
26. शहरबाट शब्दहरु
27. साहित्यः जीवनको निम्ति
28. मेरो ब्लग
29. समकालीन साहित्य
30. Rabindra Neupane
31. यात्रीको ब्लग
33. प्रगतिशील लेखक सङ्घ, नेपाल
34. Kapilvastu Day Blog

Notable blogs, which were active in the past, are here. Hopefully, these will be reactivated again.
मेरो विचार र अभिव्यक्तिको साझा चौतारी
दूर्जेय चेतना
साइबर चौतारी
Because of gradual loss of enthusiasm in blogging and many hurdles in Nepal, blogverse may shrink in future, however, it gives immense self-satisfaction.

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Model Questions for Immunology

Model Questions for Immunology (MSc Microbiology, Faculty of Science, TU, Nepal)
Long Answer Questions (10)
   1. Explain in brief about type III hypersensitivity. Differentiate between immediate and delayed type hypersensitivity.

Short Answer Questions (5 marks for each)
   2. What is autoimmunity? Explain with some abnormal physiology in human body.
   3. Explain the entry of HIV in CD4 cell.
   4. Write in brief about immunotolerance.
   5. Explain the mechanism of tissue injury in type I hypersensitivity.

Very Short Answer Questions (2 marks for each)
   6. Describe the neonatal jaundice in brief.
   7. What is myasthenia gravis?
   8. What is arthus reaction?
   9. Describe in brief about chronic granulomatous disease.
   10. Explain the manifestation of mutations occur in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) gene.
   11. Enlist some diseases due to congenital immunodeficiency.

MCQs (1 mark for each)
1. Type I hypersensitivity can be blocked using:
      A  Histamine.
      B  An IgA myeloma.
      C  A myeloma protein of mixed antibody class.
      D  Interleukin-5.
      E  Sodium cromoglycate.

2. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can lead to:
      A  Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
      B  Cold hemagglutinin disease.
      C  Agranulocytosis.
      D  Thrombocytopenic purpura.
      E  Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

3. The term reactive lysis usually refers to a sequence of events involving:
      A Complement.
      B Natural killer (NK) cells.
      C Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL).
      D Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).
      E Th1 cells.

4. Which type of hypersensitivity cannot be transferred with serum antibody?:
      A  Type I.
      B  Type II.
      C  Type III.
      D  Type IV.
      E  Type V.

5. Anaphylaxis can be triggerred by cross-linking of IgE receptors on:
      A  Monocytes.
      B  Mast cells.
      C  B-cells.
      D  Eosinophils.
      E  Neutrophils.
         Source: Roitt's Essential Immunology, 12th Edition.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Structure, properties and classification of amino acids

Some key-words are:
What is the structure ?
What is the role of Proteins?

  1. The function of a protein is intrinsically dependent on its structure.
  2. Since its structure is maintained by combinations of chemical interactions which are individually weak and flexible, the environment in which a protein finds itself can affect its structure.
  3. Heat and pH affect protein structure.
  4. The cell uses factors such as phosphorylation or ligand-binding to affect the structure, and therefore the function, of many proteins
Amino Acid
  1. The first discovered Amino Acid was asparagine, in 1806.
  2. The last, threonine, 1938.
  3. All the amino acids have trivial or common names, in some cases derived from the source from which they were first isolated.
  4. Asparagine was first found in asparagus,
  5. Glutamate in wheat gluten;
  6. Tyrosine was first isolated from cheese (its name is derived from the Greek tyros, “cheese”); and glycine (Greek glykos, “sweet”) was so named because of its sweet taste.
Essential Amino acids: They are not synthesized by the body and must be supplied from the diet. These are; Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine, Arginine*, and Histidine*
PVTtim H*A*LL (private team  hall)
*Semi essential amino acid
Rest of the materials are found in pdf file. Please, wait in case of slow internet.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Model Questions for Biochemistry-III

 Model Questions for Biochemistry (Microbiology) 
1. Explain in brief about lipolysis.
2. Explain the urea cycle.
3. What is the salvage pathway, enlist the steps?
4. Why TCA is said to be amphibolic?
5. What are the ketone bodies? Explain their metabolism.

6. What are enzymes, explain with the classification?
7. Give some examples of the special molecules of the body whose precursor are amino acids.
8. Enlist the enzymes involved in TCA cycle and estimate the number of ATP generation.
9. Describe the stoichiometry for palmitic acid oxidation.
10. What are the differences between fatty acid biosynthesis and breakdown.

11. Derive Michaelis-Menten equation.
12. What are coenzymes and isozymes? Explain in brief with examples.
13. Explain pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
14. What is the glyoxylate cycle? Show its relationship to the citric acid cycle.
15. Explain the De novo synthesis of Pyrimidine (steps only).

Friday, June 19, 2015

Titles of MSc theses submitted to the central department of microbiology, TU, Nepal

Central Department of Microbiology of Nepal was established in 1990 (2048) under Institute of Science and Technology (IOST) at Tribhuvan University. The department offers Master’s and Ph. D. Degree in Microbiology. Over 500 students have completed M. Sc. degree and a few candidates have completed Ph. D. degree in Microbiology from this department. Despite many hurdles has been faced in Nepal in academic field, the department can maintain its own building with necessary infrastructures, research laboratories along with free Internet access and library facilities, etc.

Here is the list of MSc theses submitted to the central department of microbiology (CDM), TU, Nepal up to batch of 2003 and some 2004. Titles of recent MSc and all PhD theses will be uploaded.
Note: This is for academic purpose only, and voluntarily publishing, blog does not take any responsibility for accuracy and other claims.
Courtesy: Microbiological Students' Association of Nepal (MiSAN).

Name                    Year                                         Topics 

Mr. Rajan Pd. Adhikari 1994 Microbial Quality of fruits of Kathmandu valley and their utilization in wine making and upgrading protein content of fruits peels by using Aspergillus niger, Trichodema  and Penicillium spp
Bidya  Shrestha 1994 Study of campylobacter in diarrheal  and non-diarrheal Nepalese children and detection of  in diarrheal children
Anjana Maharjan 1994 Bacteriological investigation on ice-cream of kathmandu
Anjana Shrestha 1994 Study on the water pollution of Ranipokhari and use of fish culture as a biological control of pond pollution
Kedar G.C. 1994 An indigenous fermented food of Eastern Nepal
Shova Shrestha 1994 Study of physical composition and bacteriological analysis of solid waste of Kathmandu city 
Dwij Raj Bhatta 1994 Isolation and characterization of thermo philic and anylase positive bacteria from hot spring of Nepal
Pradeep Kumar Shah 1994 Biotyping of coagulase negative staphy lococci (CONS)
Peare Banmali 1994 Bacteriological study of food and water of pode community of Kirtipur
Bimmi Shrestha 1995 Epidemiology and microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection among adult patients in Nepal
Gyanendra Bd. Karki 1995 Bacteriological study of chicken and buff meat of Kathmandu valley
Indu Bikram Joshi 1995 Preliminary survey of dominant bacterial flora of indoor air of Kathmandu
Arjuman Shrestha 1995 Proteolytic Activities of mesophilic Bacteria
Sangita Shakya 1995 Study on the impolite activities of fungi isolated from different oil mill areas
Prakash Ghimire 1995 Prevalence of Bacteriuria and UTI in Nepalese women
Dev Kumar Ranjit 1995 Study of antimicrobial resistant Echerichia Coli
Buddhi Pudasaini 1995 Study of solid waste of Kathmandu Valley and its impact on Kathmandu
Moti lal Shrestha 1995 Microbiology of wound infection, a hospital based study
Durga Ghimire 1995 Bacteriological profile of bacteriaemia patients visiting Patan Hospital
Ira Tuladhar 1996 Bacteriological study of cheese of Kathmandu City
Bishwa Kala Aryal 1996 Serological analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from various clinical specimens with special interest in gastroenteritis
Sabina Dangol 1996 Microbiology of worm infection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Rabindra Acharya 1996 A research on integrated fish culture utilizing human wastes in Nepal
Pradipta Udas 1996 Bacteriological study of ice-cream butter and rasbery of Kathmandu city
Pravin Malla "Shrestha" 1996 Improvement of nutrictional value of soybean by fermentation  using aspergillus oryzae
Amod Kumar Pokharel 1996 Micro-Biological Study of paper industries effects
Bihnesh Shrestha 1996 Screening of thermophiles from hot spring of Nepal for thermostable proteases.
Kusumabati Bagracharya 1996 Bacteriological analysis of intestine of fish and its environment
Usha Joshi 1996 Hazard analysis critical control points module of traditional Nepalese meat based street foods
Sagarika Manandhar 1996 Microbiology of urinary tract infection a hospital based study
Sarita Manandhar 1996 Isolation of pectolytic microorganisms from citnus fruits and characterization of the pectic enzymes
Rashmila Prajapati 1996 Fermented soybean: A possible replacer of fish meal
Rina Pradhan 1996 Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils of Nepal and its insect toxicity.
Paru Joshi 1996 Bacteriological study of fresh vegetables of Kathmandu valley
Bashudha Shrestha 1996 Isolation of salmonella species from blood and study of its antibiotic sensitivity patterns
Pradipta Bhushan Pokhreli Udas 1996 Bacteriological study of ice-cream butter and rosbery of  Kathmandu city
Chandra Prakash Bhatta 1996 Study of different diagnostic methods and prevalence of Pulmonary tuberculosis among Nepalese population
Deen Bandhu Bhatta 1996 Hazard analysis critical control point process in milk chain
Gyanendra Ghimire 1997 Studies on amylolytic activity during solid state fermentation of murcha a traditional yeast starter of Nepal
Manoj Thapa 1997 Bacteriological study of water and its treatment using plant products
Kishor Manandhar 1997 Serological survey of hepatitis B surface antigen among the healthy Nepalese males
Sarala Joshi 1997 Microbiological study of bodyfluid
Rakesh Kumar Jha 1997 Fermential soybean a suitable protein source in fish diet in relation to its enzyme system
Batu Krishna Sharma Kuinkel 1997 Study on air microflora of Kathmandu valley and its seasonal and location variation
Era Shrestha 1997 Study on B-Lactamase activity by microbiological and biochemical methods in Staphylococcus aureus from healthy Nasal carriers and Hospital Isolates
Bikash Pandey 1997 Microbiological and chemical analysis of food beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) of Kathmandu valley
Manju Shree Shakya 1997 Microbial analysis of burn injuries at burn unit of different hospitals
Chandana Gurung 1997 Study of actiology of acute diarrhoea with special interest in Salmonella and Shigella
Rajeev Mani Nepal 1997 Nutritional improvement of soybean by fermentation for its possible use in feed for developing state of carp family
Puspa Man Shrestha 1997 Bacteriological analysis of fish and its environment and enzymatic activities of fish isolates
Kalpana K.C. 1997 Isolation of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria from community ponds and their antibiotic transfer mechanims in such environment
Sushilman Singh pradhan 1997 Optimization of Nutrient conditions for thormostable protoase production
Rishi Prakash Niraula 1997 Hazard Analysis critical control point (HACCP) process of cheese manufacturing in Nepal
Binod Lekhak 1997 Study on industrial effluent and its biolotical treatment using LEMNA species
Sampurna Singh Dangol 1997 Cauterization and Optimization of amylase produced 
Leela Shrestha 1997 Microbiology of Burn Wound in Children at Kanti children's hospital
Kritika Gautam 1997 Prevalence of urinary tract infection on children 
Rumu Amatya 1998 Studies on mesophilic and thermopilic microorganisms commonly found in compost piles of Kathmandu valley
Bishnu Raj Tiwari 1998 An epidemiological study of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria in sub-urban community of Kathmandu valley.
Anjana Shakya 1998 Microbiology of oral cavity with special interest to B-Hemolytic Streptococcus 
Kiran Shah 1998 Characterization of E-coli isolated from urinary tract infected patients
Keshab Parajuli 1997 Study of causative organisms from pus sample and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern
Luna Bhatta 1998 Study of antimicrobial properties of punica granatminum 
Makhan Maharjan 1998 Assessment of groundwater quality and study of antibiotic resistance and olidynamic action against some isolated enteric bacteria
Reshma Tamrakar 1998 Antibacterial activities of antinomy cetes isolated from soils of Kathmandu valley
Sunil Manandhar 1998 Impact of effluents on rivers and reduction of biochemical oxygen demand using Cladosporium oxysporum
Archana Shrestha 1998 Cerviccts and cancer of in Nepal
Kaushal Joshi 1999 A prospective study on bacteriology of lower respiratory tract infection among the patients visiting T.U. teaching hospital Kathmandu
Jyoti Amatya 1998 Study of urinary tract infection and cancer of urinary bladder
Krishna Lal Kandel 1999 Infection of foot ulcers in Leprosy Patients
Archana Katuwal 1999 A perspective study on bacteriology of would infection among impatient at Bir Hospital (A Hospital Based Study)
AnJali Tibrewal 1999 A prespective study on etiological agents causing infective endocarditis and related bacteri\aemic and septiaemic cases among patients visiting Bir Hospital
Hirdaya Ratna Shakya 1999 Prospective study on aetidogy of childhood diarrhoea based on clinical featured and laboratory investigation
Monika Joshi 1999 Seroprevalence of hepatitis B And hepatitis C infection among blood donors in Kathmandu valley
Puspa Raj Dahal 1999 Utilization of fruit wastes for the production of citric acid via fermentation by using Aspergillums
Buddhi Sagar Ghimire 1999 Utilization of tea wastes as a substrate for microbial protein production
Rupa Acharya 1999 Production of aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus isolated from different edible foodstuffs of Kathmandu
Deepak Singh 1999 Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from various geogra phical region of Nepal and characterization of their antibacterial agents.
Bijaya Kumar Dhakal 1999 A prospective study of urinary tract infection based on culture and direct microscopy of urine along with the antibiotic sensitivity test of urinary pathogens
Krishna Prashad Subedi 1999 Insecticidal activities and immunology of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from insect samples of Nepal
Roshana Joshi (Shrestha) 1999 Preliminary test of bacteriocins from Pseudomonas sps isolated from potato
Sandesh Regmi 1999 Isolation, screening, identification and selection of best fermentative yeast from murcha sample
Aarati  Karki 1997 Prevalence of acute diarrhoeal episodes in Kathmandu valley during 1997
Pallavi Sthapit 1999 The Isolation and identification of antibiotic producing bacteria in the compost samples of Kathmandu valley
Shaila Basnyat 1999 Studies on effect of pesticides on soil inhabiting bacteria of pesticide applied cultivated fields of Kathmandu valley
Palpasa Tuladhar 1999 A perspective study on bacteriology of wound infection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Reena Lamichhane 1999 Study of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) isolated from different clinical samples
Chenu Gongol 1999 Fermentation of grape juice by using brewing yeast isolated from Nepalese starter-murcha
Leena Rajbhandari 1999 Efficiency of alcohol fermentation of herdemu  vulgate (Naked barley) from traditional murcha
Sanchita Sapkota 1999  Antibacterial Activity of natural honey: A preliminary study
Thakur Prasad Paudel 1999 Drug resistant enteric bacteria in poultry samples of Kathmandu valley and their epidemiological study by plasmid profiling
Harish Chandra Shrestha 2000  Screening of aflatoxin producing Aspergillus flavus isolated from maize and study on their growth suppression by various chemical agents
Nawa Raj Bangade 1999 A prospective study on aetiology of bacteremia septicacmia at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Anand Bahadur Chand 2000 A prospective study on Aetiological agents of diarrheal disease in children in relation to parasites and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates
Binita Panta 2000  A study on sexually transmitted infections among the patients visiting at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Sujan Piya 2000 A study on diarrhea in children in relation to behavioral and environment factors 
Dev Raj Joshi 2000 Studies on role of exopolysaccharide of Xanthomonas campestris PV. campestris, isolated from cabbage seeds, in pathgenesis and correlation of exopolysaccharide in pathgenicity on host plants
Abhignya Subedi 2000 Prevalence of multiple drug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal patients of Kathmandu and study of their relations by plasmid profiling 
Priyambada Paudyal 2000 Study on the relationship between the infections of Helicobacter pylori and epstein barr virus and the corcinogenesis of the gastric cancer
Chandra Kala Rai 2000 A perspective study on antibiotic sensitivity profiles of the organisms associated with clinical infections among the patients attending T.U. Teaching Hospital; A hospital based study
Arishma Rajkarnikar (singh) 2000 Antibiotic resistant Vibrio cholerae isolated from Kathmandu valley and characterization of the isolates by biotyping and serotyping
Shiva Raj Pokhrel 2000 Microbiological and chemical analysis of mineral water sold in the kathmandu valley
Naba Raj Pokhrel 2000 Screening and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of Nepal and isolation of pure antimicrobial compound four bushfire variegate
Pankaj Acharya 2000 Microbiological study on street fried foods and isolation and identification of some microorganisms of public health importance
Purushotam Prasai 2000 Microbiological study of raw meat of Kathmandu valley with public health and veterinary importance and serological study of the isolated Salmonella species
Sunita Pokhrel 2000 Serodiagnosis of Syphilis among clinically suspected patients visiting Bir Hospital and the Risk of HIV and Hepatitis B infection among syphilitic patients
Munman K.C. ------- Bacterial analysis of street food in relation to child health
Bhupesh Khadka 2000 Immuno diagnostics for tuberculosis
Sapana Sharma 2000 Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some common species
Rajandra Prasad Aryal 2000 Study on viruses in relation with skin cancer among Nepalese people
Parmeshwor Narayan Amatya 2000 Study on cytokine (interferon-gamma) responses to skin test antigens of leprosy
Chariu Arjyal 2001 Bacteriology of ear discharges
Pratap Karki 2001 Study of solar Disinfection of drinking water
Prakriti Raj Kandel 2001 A study of severe Malaria in-relation to HIV and syphilis among patients visiting bherizamal Hospital
Abhilasla Karkey 2001 Monitoring of liver and renal function among human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals 
Rupa Shakya 2001 Study on bacterial flora in blood specimen collected from hospitalized and out patients service of T.U. teaching hospital
Prerana Bajracharya 2001 Sero-diagnosis of Japnese Encephalitis and malaria and an assesment of public health awarnes about the above diseases (A study confined within BHERI Zonal hospital)
Prakash Kumar Paudyal 2001 Study of physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of Bagmati river and treatment of polluted water using clodosporium resinoe
Suresh Subedi 2001 Study of prevalence of helicobacter pylori in gastroducdenal diseases and evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates.
Ganga Gharty Chetri 2001 Prevalence of tuberculosis among the suspected patients visiting Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital and their antimicrobial resistance pattern
Arjun Thapa 2001 Study of indoor Vs. outdoor air microfilaria and its relations to PM 7.07
Giri Raj Dahal 2001 Air quality assessment of Brick rain area
Shila Bhattarai 2001 Study of microflora of vermicompost and its anlagonistic activity against plant pathogenic bacteria
Saphala Dhital 2001 Determination of antibiotic resistant gram negative urinary pathogens in pediatric patient at kanti children's hospital
Rama Dhungel 2001 Prevelance of common bacterial different clinical samples pathogens in submitted at Tribhuvan university teaching hospital and their antibiotics sensitivity test profiles
Mahesh Ram Baidya 2001 Sereening and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants of Nepal
Buddhi Kumar Shrestha 2001 Study of hazare dialysis critical control point (HACCP) system in sausage-production plants
Anju Sharma 2001 Enumeration and isolation of pesticide degrading bacteria from different soil samples of Kathmandu valley and study on transferability of degradative plasmid from Pseudomonas Putida isolates into E. Coli
Lata Ghimire 2001 Study of microbial flora present in the conjzmctiva of the cataract patients before and after the use of betadinne solution and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern
Sushama Sharma 2002 Study of Microbiological  and chemical quality of fermented milks (DAHI) of Kathmandu valley
Chaman Ranjit 2001 Distribution of citrus Tiristeza virus in various regions in Nepal and development of virus free plantlets by meristem culture
Tarani Prasad Paneru 2002 Antibiotic sensitivity profile of Escherichia coli, klebsiella and Pseudomonas of patients visiting TUTH Kathmandu
Megha Raj Banjara 2002 Study of air, water and wound infection in different words of T.U. Teaching Hospital
Sangita Bhattarai 2002 Insecticidal activities of Bacillus thuringiensis against cluex quinquefacatus and spodoptera Litura
Kiran Babu Tiwari 2002 Study of Meningitis in patients University teaching Hospital
Nawaraj Dhakal 2002 Microbial Digestion of vegetable and Kitchen wastes for Biogas
Yogan Khatri 2002 Development of IND-elisa for for actinomycetes and Study of Senological Relationship
Supriti Shrestha 2002 Assessment of Drinking water quality supplied by Nepal supply corporation Sundarighat and identification, Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and serotyping of isolated Escherichia coli.
Sriju Sharma 2002 Pattern of Microbial flora among the visitors and the environment of intensive care unit (ICU) Tribhuvan University teaching Hospital  
Rajita Rajbhandari 2002 Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aereus (MRSA) in Bir Hospital
Aashish Poudyal 2002 Salmonella Serotyping and Drug Susceptibility pattern from Environment and Clinical Samples of Urban Nepal
Anima Shrestha 2002 Bacteriological Study of Upper Respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients
Rupa Pandey 2002 A. Hospital based study of urinary tract infection among women visiting antental clinic of tribhuvan universit teaching hospital
Tista Prasai 2002 Drinking water quality assessment of kathmandu valley and antibacterial property of Enteric Bacteria Isolated
Deepak Acharya 2002 Prevalence of beta-haemolytic sterptococci in throat of school children and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern.
Khadga Bikram Shah 2002 Study on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among the post operative ward visitors, staff and patients of TU teaching hospital with drug sensitivity pattern
Bishwa Raj Thapa 2003 Optimization and use of polymeisase chain reaction for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and Leprosy
Durga Shreatha 2003 Prevalence of Bacterial infection in Acute hepatitis in Nepal
Sneha  Bam 2002 Quality control in tuberculosis smear microscopy 
Ita Bhattarai 2003 Study of the prevalence of camfryholacter in Daw meat and drinking water in water corporation of Kathmandu and Possible research for shigella 
Janak Raj Dhungana 2002 Tuberculosis and human immuno deficiency virus co-infection in united mession hospital Nepal
Binod Prasad Pathak  2003 A prospective study on acute group a streptococcal pharyogitis and its delayed sequelae on school children of Kathmandu valley, Nepal
Diyo Ram Rai 2003 Study of the factors associated with enteric parasitic infection among school children in a rural village setting in Kathmandu valley, Nepal
Narayan Raj Bhattarai 2003 Anti-tuberculosis treatment resistant in pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting German-Nepal tuberculosis project kalimati, Kathmandu,
Keshav Rai 2003 Relative study of enterophathogens (parasites and bacteria) in gastroenteritis and its predisposing factors
Rajender Prasad Subedi 2003 Study of Ambient air micro flora of Kathmandu valley and its relation to P.M. 10 
Darshan Sapkota 2003 Prevalence of anteric parasitosis in HIV/AIDS Patients of Nepal
Nagenra Prasad Yadav 2003 Prevalence of lymptatic filariasis is Dhenusha district of Nepal
Madhu Sudan Pandey 2003 Study on the prevalence of multiple drug resistant Salmonella in poultry birds 
Pallavi Gurung 2003 Microbial contamination of the contact lens and its care
Sushil Chandra Regmi 2003 Evaluation of Nitrate test in detecting urinary Tract infection
Salina Gairte 2003 Microbial colonization of maternal genital tract and its relationship to onset of early neonatal sepsis
Bhagabati Panday 2004 Studies on the antibacterial activity of antiromycetes isolated from khambu region of Nepal.
Sachindra Raj Joshi 2003 Carriage pattern of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy school children
Preeti Gautan 2004 Prevalence of Urinary tract infection in Datetic Patients
Pratap Shahi 2002 Comparative Study of tuberculosis test Ziehl Neelsen staining and culture in the diagnosis of tuberculosis
Niraja Thapa 2002 Superficial fungal infection and awareness status among the patients visiting dermatology outpatients department of tribhuvan university teaching hospital
Suraj Dhungel 2004 Moduflation of whole blood immune to phenolic glycolipid (PGTD of M. Leprae)
Smritee Pokharel 2004 Comparative evaluation of different staining techniques for the diagnosis of tuberculosis lymphadenitis
Manoj Ghimire 2004 Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance status in Kirtipur community bacterial isolates
Pukar Acharya 2004 Air quality assessment of Kathmandu Valley
Dipak Adhikari 2004 Production and  characterijation of the antimicrobial substances from Bacillus species
Bharat Khatiwada 2004 Characterization of proteases from Bacillus species producing antimicrobial substances
Punita Gauchan 2004 Lower respiratory tract infection a socio-medical aspect
Chandra Sdhekheir Rajaure 2003 Study on performance of waste water  treatment plant at guheshwari
Jaya Sharma 2004 A prospective study on microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity profile with interest in multidrug resistance and extended spectrum of betalactamase strains 
Surath Uuadhyaya 2004 Prevalence of Lymphatic filariasis in Parsa District of Nepal
Puspa Raj Pandey 2004 Field evaluation of the OPTimal test for the rapid diagnosis of malaria
Deepak Joshi 2004 An epidemiological study of malaria in Kanchanur District during 2003
Yadav Wagley 2004 Microbiology of Bacteraemia and septicaemia in patients visiting Tribhuvan University, Teaching Hospital (TUTH) Kathmandu. 
Anjita Rajbanshi 2004 Study on heavy metal resistant bacteria in the waste water treatment plant at Guheshwori
Abhilasha Gurung 2004 Prevalence of catheter associated urinary tract infection as Hospital acquired infection in TUTH
Amin Khadka 2004 Comparative evaluation of four different tests in the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal
Toya Nath Sapkota 2004 Microbial quality evaluation of milk and butter with special reference to the milk pathogens and MBRT test
Komal Rajj Rijal 2004 An epidemiological study of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting national tuberculosis centre.
Munal Subedi 2004 A Hospital study of urinary tract infection among pregnant women visiting Lumbini Zonal Hospital, Butwal
Amrit M.S. Maharjan 2002 Study on the impairment of liver kindney and pancreas in Hepatitis B and C positive cases
Ranjan K. C 2004 Enteropathogens associated with acute diarrhoea in patients visiting National Public Laboratory, Teku.
Bijaya Malla 2004 Study on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage enteroparasitic infectations in children
Sabina Shrestha 2004 Study on the prevalence of Salmonella species from blood sample of the patients visiting national public health  laboratory, Teku
Santosh Thapa 2004 Prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children visiting Kanti children's Hospitals
Narayan Prasad Kandel 2004 Bacteriological profile of bacteraemia and speticaemia among patients of infective endocarditis
Deepu Pudasaini 2004 Microbial study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients admitted in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Jorpati
Puja Shrestha 2004 A prospective study of urinary tract infections in female patients attending Kathmandu Model Hospital
Nirajan Thapa Kshetry 2004 Prevalence of Aeromonas in different clinical samples and water with special interest in Gastroenteritis
Raj Kumar Karki 2004 Serostatus of rheumatoid factor, c-reactive protein, antistreptolysin-o and uric acid in patients visiting OM Hospital and research centre
Gokarna Raj Ghimire
Study of urinary tract infection among kidney transplant patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku.
Bijaya Bajracharya 2004 Prevalence of vulvovaginal giardiasis in females attending gynecological outpatient department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Pradeep Kafle 2004 Seroprevalence of torch in Nepalese women of childbearing age and evaluation of biochemical parameters
Roshani Maharjan 2005 Detection of enteric pathogens (Vibrio Cholerae and Escherichia coli 0157) in childhood diarrhoeal cases
Sulochana Basnet (Mahat) 2004 Prevalence of Urinary tract infection and candiasis of   pregnant women at community based reproductive health care & counseling center of Kirtipur Municipality
Diksha Khadka 2005 Detection of Enteropathogens (Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Parasites) in the stool specimen of children suffering from diarrhea and admitted at kanti children Hospital
D Radha 2004 Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of some medical plants
Dinesh Thapa 2004 Seroprev valence of hepatitis B and HIV among volunteer blood donors of Kathmandu
Dipendra Gautam 2005 Prevalence of lower respiratory tract pathogens (bacterial) in Nepalese HIV/AIDS Patients
Prakash Chandra Amatya 2004 Study of Bacteraemia in malnourished children admitted to Kanti children's hospital
Dal Bahadur Khatri 2005 Recovery of sliver from used X-Ray films using alkaline protease extracted from Bacillus spp
Niraj Nakarmi 2005 Screening of soil bacillus species for ß lactamase activity
Susan Pandey 2005 Genetic variability of Mycobacterium leprae in Nepal
Rajdeep Bomjan 2005 Prevalence of multidrug resistant strains with reference to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains among the bacterial pathogens isolated from different clinical samples at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Trishna Manandhar 2005 Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacterial pathogens in urinary trace infection with special reference to extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) oridycubt straubs
Deepa Shrestha 2005 Study on Microbiology of urinary tract infection and the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains among the bacterial pathogens
Govinda Prasad Dhungana 2005 Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in HIV-AIDS persons of Nepal
Uma Shrestha 2005 Cross-sectional study of respiratory pathogenes and their antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern in Tribhuvan Unversity Teaching Hospital
Ajaya Poudel 2006 Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for direct detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples
Niroj Man Amatya 2006 A study on etiological agents of bacteraemia and antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern of isolates
Anjana Upadhayay 2005 Biodiversity and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of tsuga dumosa D. Don
Yukti Basnet 2006 Vermicomposting, enrichment of vermicompost by azotobacter chroococcum and response on phaseolus bean
Bishnu Bhakta Dhungyel 2006 Prevalence of malaria and hepatitis B among Nepalese blood donors
Deepika Shrestha 2006 Evaluation of different staining techniques (Ziehl neelsen stain, Kinyoun stain, Modified cold stain and fluorochrome stain) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Upendra Thapa Shrestha 2006 Study of delta encotoxin immunocrossreactivity of bacillus thuringiensis isolates from khumbu base camp of the Everest Region
Gyan Sundar Sahukhal 2006 Study of genetic polymorphism among bacillus thuringensis isolates from Khumbu Base Camp of Everest Region by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase Chain Reaction
Samira Khatiwada 2006 Study of prevalence of enteric fever and the assessment of widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever
Sirjana Devi Shrestha 2006 A prospective study on etiology of diarrhea with reference to multiple drug resistant enteric bacterial pathogens
Mr. Sunil Maharjan 2006 Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among HIV/HIDS patients of Kathmandu Valley and Dhulikhel
Ms. Chamala Lama 2006 Microbiological study among diarrhoeal children in relation to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
Mr. Navaraj Raj Adhikari 2006 Study of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among HIV seropositive subjects and high risk group for HIV infection in Bagmati Zone, Nepal
Mr. Dhan Kumar Pant 2006 Assessment of therapeutic of anti-mallarial drug (chloroquine) for plasmodium vivax in kanchanpur district, Nepal
Mr. Bikash Shakya 2006 Study on intestinal infections by parasite and some bacteria among elderly people of Kathmandu Valley.
Jyoti Pant 2006 Microbial study of hospital environment and carrier pattern study among staff in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hosptial
Poonam Thapa 2006 Assessment of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) from restaurants of Kathmandu metropolitan city with respect to environmental condition
Shyam Prasad Dumre 2006 Sero-epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Nepal
Arina Shrestha 2006 A study on soil transmitted helminthiasis in Kathmandu Valley
Nisha Puri 2006 Study on the incidence of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and the prevalence of multidrug resistant strains among the bacterial pathogenic isolates
Sanchita Dahal 2006 Prevalence of bacterial and fungal agents causing lower respiratory tract infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Sudeep Singh 2006 Isolation and identifcaton of the etiolotical agent of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients visiting national tuberculosis center, Thimi, Bhaktapur
Shishir Sharma 2006 Microbial flora among vstors and the hospital environment in ICU and SICU at TUTH
Sangeeta Shrestha 2006 A study on possible contribution of horizontal transmission in neonatal sepsis at TUTH
Kiran Sapkota 2006 Prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical specimnets from patients and screening of nasal carriage of MRSA from Medical Staffs of Bir Hospital
Dinesh Dhakal 2006 Study of the disease citrus canker and field trial to find its effective control measure in “Kavre” Nepal.
Jeny Shrestha 2006 Effect of dual inoculation of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar p[haseoli and Piriformospora indica verma et al. on phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil treated with vermicompost
Rajani Shrestha 2006 Study on the effect of co-inoculation of bradyrhizobium japonicum and pirifirmospora indica verma et al. on glycine max (L.) merr.
Shova Khanal 2006 A study on microbiology of urinary tract nfection at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital Kathmandu Nepal
Olivia Thapa 2006 Evaluation of antibiacterial activity of some medicinal plants frequently used in respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in Nepal
Rachana Manandhar 2006 Pattern of bacterial flora in various out patient departments of TUTH
Asta Ram Khagi 2006 A comparative study of different diagnostic methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in suspected patients visiting National Tuberculosis Centre, Thimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal
Sarita Shrestha 2007 Study on prevalence of common types of vaginitis (candidiasis, traichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis) among the pregnant women visiting thapathali maternity hospital Kathmandu
Nirmala Dhungana 2007 Role of Glomus Microcarpum in the production of whear (triticum aestivum)  plants
Padma Shrestha 2007 Study of bacteria causing urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial resistance trend at national public health laboratory
Rup Bahadur Kunwor 2007 Nalidxic acid resistant salmonella with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility
Shiva Ram Pant 2007 Corelation of secondary infection with peripheral level T lymphocyte with CD4 marker (CD$) count in HIV/AIDS patients
Rama Gyewali 2007 A study on Microbiological and chemical quality of water of Kathmandu
Sujata Lamichhane 2007 Study on seroprevalence of IgM Antibiodies against the agents of torch infections among the patients visiting National Public Health Laboratory
Kamil Prajapati 2007 Effect of dual inoculation of azotobacterchroococcum and piriformospora indica verma et al on oryza satwal croun in the soil treated with vermicompost
Shradha Chiplalu 2007 Microbiological study on gastroenteritis of children from Kanti Children's Hospital with reference to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
Rojita Tuladhar 2007 Comparative evaluation of microscopic and cultural examination in bacterial meningitis among the patients attending Kanti Children Hospital
Anup Muni Bajracharya 2007 Study of drinking quality of Kathmandu Metropolitan areas and evaluation of antibacterial property of some medicinal plants against isolated enteric bacteria
Saraswoti Khadge 2007 DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Nepal using PCR-labelled is 6110 probe
Bal Ram Adhikari 2007 Use of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Lamp) for direct detection of Mycobacterium in sputum
Semuhang Subba 2007 Study of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary tuberculosis patients visiting national tuberculosis center, Thimim Bhaktapur, Nepal
Rojita Tuladhar 2007 Comparative evaluation of microscopic and cultural examination in bacterial  meningitis among the patients attending Kanti Children Hospital
Shradha Chipalu 2007 Microbiological study on gastroenteritis of children from Kanti Children's Hospital with reference to cyclospora and rotavirus infection
Bina Laxmi Jayana 2007 Assessment of drinking water quality of madhyapur-Thimi ans study of anti bacterial effect of lime juice against bacterial isolates
Kamala Lamsal 2005 Study the hospital environment of shahid gangalal national heart centre
Yasoda Gyawali 2007 Study on bacteriological profile of infected wound from patient's visiting to lumbini zonal hospital, butwal, Nepal
Deena Shrestha 2007 Prevalence of bacteraemia and septicaemia among children attending kanti children hospital with special reference to salmonella spp.
Pragya Sharma 2007 Study on intestinal parasitic infections in tharu community of bardiya district
Sujaya Nepali 2007 Screening of mycobacterium tuberculoss by selective inhibition with para-nitrobenzoic acid, its cytochemical staining and drug susceptibility to primary anti-tubercular drugs
Bhim Shrees 2005 Microbiological and physico-chemical analysis of alcoholic beverages of Kathmandu Valley
Prashqnna Raj Kafle 2007 Study on drinking water quality of Kathmandu and attending susceptibiligy of isolates 
Khagendra Prakash K. C. 2007 Seroprevalence of rubella in Nepal
Madan Singh Bohara 2007 Reproductive tract infections among women attending gynaecological outpatient department Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital
Sunita Maharjan 2007 Tuberculosis and human imuno-deficency virus co-infection in suspected TB patients
Srijana Thapaliya 2007 Study of biodiversity and bioactivity of endophytic fungi of some Himalayan conifers of Nepal
Prashamsa Karkee 2008 Bacterial isolatres and their antibiogram from wounds and abscesses of surgical outpatients visiting bir hospital
Sushma Acharya 2008 Comparison of the resistance ratio and proportikon methods for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients visiting national tuberculosis centre
Kiran Kumari 2008 Pattern of bacterial isolates and antibiogram from open wound infection an\mong the indoor patients of Bir Hoapital
Binita Koirala 2008 Comparative study of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Lamp) for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum
Khagendra Koirala 2008 Sterid biosynthesis and embryonic stem cell proteins as putative predictive breast cancer biomarker
Sarmila Tandukar 2008 Enteropathogenic microorganisms in children under ten years of age attending Kanti Children's Hospital
Surendra Karki 2008 Seroprevalence of hepatitisc and HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu valley
Anil Shrestha 2008 Prevalence of soil transmitted parasites in raw vebetables of Kathmandu and stool samples of school children
Rumika Maharjan 2008 Estimation of incidence of HIV infection in Nepal by mode of transmissionamong various exposure groups
Nirajan Bhattarai 2008 Genetic simalasrities among bacillus thuringiensis strains from different climatic zones of Nepal
Chringma Sherpa 2008 Biochemical and molecular characterization of actinomycetes prosessing antibacterial properties from soil samples of kalapatthar, mounteverest region
Tara Devi Gurung 2008 Screening of actinomycetes from soil samples of Kalapatthar mount everest region for antibiosis
Suman Thapa 2008 Immunological screening of actinomycetes of khumbu region of Nepal
Pankaj Baral 2008 Multidrug resistance among various clinical bacterial isolates and production of different types of B-lactamases with subsequent transfer mechanism by plasmid DNA analysis
Sanjiv Neupane 2008 Isolation identification and plasmid profiling of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens isolated from UTI patients 
Suman Lama 2008 An evaluation of 5% NaOCI microscopy method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
Shree Krishna Shrestha 2008 Assessment of arsenic tolerant bacteria from arsenic contaminated groundwater in nawalparasi district of Nepal
Prerana Dhungana 2008 Isolation and characterization of arsenic tolerant microorganisms from tube well water of Nawalparasi, Nepal
Manita Guragain 2008 Biochemical and genetic characterization of actinomycetes from  mount everest base camp
Narendra Maden 2008 Perspectives of arsenic exposure and asymptomatic microbial infections in Nawalparasi District
Kashi Ram Ghimire 2008 Microbiological quality evaluation of dahi/yoghurt of Kathmandu Valley
Bishnu Prasad Marasini 2008 Evaluation of antivicrobial activities of medicinal plants against some fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria
Giridhari Rijal 2008 Urinary tract infection in diabetic microalbuminuric patients visiting B&B Hospital
Santa Raj Khanal 2008 A comparative study of IGM capture Elisa and particle agglutination assay for the diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis among some Nepalese patients
Junu Koirala 2008 Study on antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes isolated from soils of different parts of khumbu region
Manoj Khadka 2008 Estimation and projection oif the trend of HIV/AIDS in Nepal till 2010 using estimation and projection pakage (EPP) softwere
Neelam Karna 2008 Cross-sectional study of urinary pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern with reference to extended spectreum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing strains in Kathmandu Model Hospital
Naresh Maharjan 2008 Evaluation of antibacterial activities of medicinal plants
Dinesh Maharjan 2008 The study of antibacterial activities of common spices
Barsha Gurung 2008 Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of salmonella isolates from blood sample of patients visiting Shree Birendra Hospital, Chauni
Minu K. C. 2008 Comparasion of blood culture and single slide agglutination widal test for the diagnosis of enteric fever
Rupa Nepal 2008 Bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates from infected burn wound at Kanti Children's Hospital
Nabaraj Dahal 2008 Comparative evaluation of macroscopic, microscopic, serological and cultural examination of csf in bacterial memingitis
Prakash Shrestha 2008 Study on HIV and sexually transmitted infections among the female commercial sex workers of Kathmandu Valley
Rishi Baniya 2008 Screening of antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes from soil samples of manang region of Nepal and their biological characterization
Dhiraj Acharya 2008 Fluoroquinolone susceptibiligy pattern of the salmonella isolates from enteric fever patients visiting to National Public Health Laboratory, Nepal
Krishna Prasad Pant 2009 Sero-epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in some selectedhospitals of Nepal
Ramesh Pun 2009 Sero-epidemiology of dengue virus infection in the post monsoon period I terai region of Nepal
Supriya Sharma 2008 Bacteriological profile of urine of postoperative patients undergone open heart surgery at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Nepal
Ashish Chandra Shrestha 2009 Transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal
Sulochana Manandhar 2008 Bacteriological and histological profile of heart valves resected from infective endocarditis patients
Shailaja Adhikari 2008 Prevalence of helicobacter pylori among dyspeptic patients attending Bir Hospital, Nepal
Manita Aryal 2008 Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing of salmonella serovars from enteric fever suspected patients visiting Bir Hospital
Krishna Govinda Prajapati 2009 Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of salmonella from blood of suspected enteric fever patients attending Patan Hospital
Hemanta Khanal 2009 Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among blood donors in Jhapa, Nepal
Pratirodh Koirala 2009 Bacterioloigcal profiles of tracheal aspirates of patients attending National Institute of Neurolobical and allied sciences.
Avishekh Gautam 2009 Evaluation of the three commercially availavle elisa test kits for the detection of Anti- HIV antibodies
Archana Bhattarai 2009 Spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates causing conjunctivitis among the patients visiting B.P. Koirala lions center for ophthalmic studies
Rabindra Karki 2009 Cholera incidence among diarrhoeal patients visiting national public health laboratory, Nepal
Anita Bhattarai 2009 Bacterioogy of chronic dacryocystitis and antibiotic susceptibiligy pattern of isolated bacteria
Esha Shrestha 2009 Isolation and characterization of salmonella from drinking water samples of urban water supply system of Kathmandu
Pratibha Thapa 2009 Strain typing of mycobacterium leprae isolates from Nepal uning variable number of tanden repeats
Binita Adhikari 2009 Use of minisatellite genetic profiling with clinical analysis of leprosy patients in Nepal